BSE

A commemorative postage stamp on 140th Anniversary of the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) :

India Stamp 2016, Bombay Stock ExchangeIssued by India

Issued on Jul 9, 2016

Issued for : On completion of 140th year of BSE, the Department of Posts is happy to release a commemorative postage stamp on BSE.

Credits :
Stamp/FDC/Cancellation Cachet : Smt. Nenu Gupta

Type : Stamp, Mint Condition

Colour : Multi Colour

Denomination : 500 Paise

Stamps Printed : 0.455 Million

Printing Process : Wet Offset

Printer : Security Printing Press, Hyderabad

About : 

  • Established in 1875 as the The Native Share & Stock Brokers’ Association, BSE Ltd. (formerly Bombay Stock Exchange) is popularly known as the Share Bazaar. As Asia‘s first stock exchange, BSE has been a pioneer in promoting equity investment among Indians and boasts of several highs that dot its 139-year old history.
  • BSE has been a catalyst, facilitator, an observer and a constant in the development of the capital market of India both pre-Independence and post-Independence. It has helped in asset formation across sectors, thereby laying a foundation for wealth generation on a sustained basis. Today, three centuries later we see a tall, iconic building at Dalal Street housing one of India’s best known landmarks – BSE. The story of BSE is the story of the Indian economy.
  • As India‘s leading stock exchange, BSE is an iconic institution and symbolic of India’s economic prowess and resilience as it continues to be a port-of-call for several high-level dignitaries, both national as well as international, from a multitude of fields.
  • BSE acts as a gateway to the dynamic Indian capital markets. It is the premier Stock Exchange of India with listed market capitalization in excess of US $1 trillion.
  • BSE is ranked as the largest Exchange in the world in terms of listed companies. It has further extended its lead as the world’s top exchange in terms of the number of listed companies, outpacing the major global peers like NYSE, Nasdaq and London Stock Exchange.
  • Earlier it had a trading floor with large number of floor brokers trading with hand signals. However, given the IT prowess of India, BSE became completely automated in 1995. It was one of the early pioneers of automated screen based trading. It also became a role model for many member owned exchanges to become automated.
  • Today, BSE is known for its highly developed and one of the fastest electronic systems for order entry, trading, clearing and settlement, depository services etc. BSE continually seeks to improve its core IT capabilities, the reliability and consistency of which help to maintain its position.
  • BSE provides investment opportunities to Indian and foreign investors in the entire gamut of financial instruments including large cap equity, SME equity, corporate debt, government debt, Indian depository receipts hybrid, equity future, equity options, stock index futures, stock index options, interest rate futures, currency futures, currency options, mutual funds, IPOs etc.
  • BSE has set up a 50:50 Joint Venture with Standard and Poors (S&P) to manage Indices jointly. The benchmark S&P BSE Sensex index is the most followed Indian Index in the world. In addition, other indices such as S&P BSE 100, S&P BSE 500 etc are closely monitored by Indian and foreign investors keen on investing in emerging economies. S&P BSE Sensex was first compiled on January 2, 1986 comprising of top 30 stocks in the country.
  • The S&P BSE Sensex is often referred to as the barometer of Indian economy. Amongst many recent initiatives, BSE successfully launched the S&P BSE IPO index, S&P BSE Carbonex, S&P BSE Greenex and PSU website. The strategic partnership with S&P Dow Jones Indices allows BSE to leverage the global marketing strength of the global leader in indices. With BSE’s strong knowledge of the Indian market and investor interests, the new partnership is able to provide Indian and International investors with the index solutions they need, to take well-informed investment decisions. It will also help in increasing international interest and participation in Indian capital markets.
  • India has the capability to become world’s fastest growing economy and for the same it is imperative that around 15 million jobs are created every year for the next 20 years. The Indian society is young with more than 50 percent of population under the age of 25. A healthy saving rate of around 30 percent creates a need for finding efficient way of channelizing these savings, either through equity, debt or any hybrid instruments or through mutual funds. Thus the stock exchanges play an important role in creating a platform for investors to invest in the Indian growth story and get benefited too.
  • With a new tagline – Experience the newBSE is well poised to explore newer frontiers of the financial markets in terms of technology, products and distribution.
  • Text : Based on the material received from proponent.

Tata Power

A commemorative postage stamp on the Tata Power Company Limited :

India Stamp 2016Issued by India

Issued on Jun 10, 2016

Issued for : The Department of Posts is happy to release a commemorative postage stamp on Tata Power.

Credits :
Stamp/FDC/Cancellation Cachet : Smt. Nenu Gupta

Type : Stamp, Mint Condition

Colour : Multi Colour

Denomination : 500 Paise

Stamps Printed : 0.406 Million

Printing Process : Wet Offset

Printer : Security Printing Press, Hyderabad

About : 

  • Guided by its Founder, Mr. Jamsetji Tata‘s vision that Clean, cheap and abundant power is one of the basic ingredients for the economic progress of a city, state or country, Tata Power has been a pioneer in the power sector in India, both in terms of its leadership in technology adoption and its care towards all its stakeholders. For over a hundred years, Tata Power has been a part of India’s growth story. Today, Tata Power is the largest integrated power utility in the country with operations spanning across the value chain – Fuel & Fuel Logistics, Power Generation (conventional & renewable), Power Transmission, Power Distribution and Retail, Power Services (Operations & Maintenance) and Power Trading.
  • Nestled in the foothills of the Western Ghats in Maharashtra, Tata Power commenced its journey in 1915 at Khopoli, harnessing the potential energy from its lakes located in the surroundings of Lonavala. The electricity, thus generated, was transmitted to the city of Mumbai. Tata Power set up a thermal power station at Trombay in 1956 that grew from a 62.5 MW plant at its launch to a 500 MW generating multi-fuel plant. In 1990, Tata Power set up a second thermal unit with an equal capacity and started a gas-based 180 MW plant at Trombay to provide uninterrupted power to Mumbai City.
  • In 2003, Tata Power entered a joint venture with Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd., to develop a 1200 km long transmission line, bringing electricity from faraway Bhutan, all the way to Delhi. In 2013, Tata Power implemented the first 4000 MW Ultra Mega Power Project at Mundra, Gujarat, based on super critical technology. Today, Tata Power has spread its wings and established itself, not only in several states in India, but its operations also span several countries across the globe.
  • Tata Power has always operated in the power sector with a focus on renewable energy. Playing the role of a visionary in this aspect Tata Power, in a JV, started Tata Power Solar 25 years ago, investing into a sustainable future which has now become one of the key focus areas for the country.
  • While it has grown to a generation capacity of 8,669 MW, Tata Power also has a pipeline of projects at different stages of development and execution. To support and sustain the existing generation, it has secured fuel supply option through a stake in Indonesia coal mines and has acquired ships for transportation of coal for Mundra. Tata Power is a leader in forming partnerships and is in fact the only company with PPP in Generation (Maithon, Dagachhu), Transmission (Powerlinks) and Distribution (TPDDL). It also has several partnerships in the overseas arena with leading players (Cennergi JV with Exxaro in South Africa and Georgia JV with IFC and Clean Energy, Dugar project in India with SN Power of Norway – a leader in the field of hydro power).
  • TPDDL, a JV between Tata Power and the Govt. of NCT of Delhi serves a populace of 6 million. The Strategic Engineering Division (SED) has been pursuing development and production activities for the nation’s defences over the last 30 years. It has established Tata Power Trading Company Ltd. (TPTCL), which is a leading power trader in the country.
  • As India’s largest integrated power company, Tata Power are conscious of role as sustainability stewards and embrace the challenges of climate change. Tata Power has executed a number of measures in order to reduce emissions. Sourcing clean coal is a significant way of reducing emissions and increasing efficiency. Tata Power has been conciously exploring clean coal sources, including imports, for its thermal power plants. The Company is committed to the cause of ensuring a greener and sustainable planet. The Mahseer Conservation program which was started in the 1970s, is a sustainable programme focused at conservation of the Mahseer, an endangered species of fish and the same has been augmented with various initiatives over the past decades. The Company also embarks on several initiatives to spread awareness about saving power, conserving energy and combating climate change issues. One such initiative is the Tata Power Club Enerji that educates the masses about how to use energy efficiently and curb energy wastage, along with conserving resources and civic & moral values. The Club reaches out to school children through various interactive mediums and sensitizes them on the need to conserve energy, resources and civic & moral values. The Club started in 2007 with 12 schools in Mumbai and has today become a nationwide movement covering ten cities – Mumbai, Pune, Bengaluru, Kolkata, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Jamshedpur, Lonavala and Belgaum. Over the last several years, it has sensitised over 9.3 million citizens who in turn have helped save more than 14.2 million units of electricity till date. This saving is equivalent to saving 14,200 tonnes of CO2 and is enough to light up approximately 6943 houses for a year.
  • The Company has continued its focus on Corporate Social Responsibility activities to make a difference to the communities and become the neighbour of choice in its area of operations. Tata Power participated in various eco-restoration and eco-development programmes in the Western Ghats, which is one of the most sensitive ecosystems in the world. Through this period, over seven million saplings of 60 tree species have been planted. Even today, over 600,000 trees are being planted regularly as a re-forestation measure. A number of training programmes are carried out for developing self-employment opportunities among the rural population. The Company also carries out regular medical check-ups, provides medicines at its health centres, and carries out a number of health awareness programmes such as eye check-ups and blood donation camps at several locations.
  • Tata Power’s multi-fold growth validates its bright future, brimming with possibilities and full of promise to power the future as a pioneer of technological innovations and green initiatives.
  • Text : Based on the material received from proponent.

Vasantrao Srinivassa Sinai Dempo

A commemorative postage stamp on Vasantrao S. Dempo, founder chairman of the Dempo Group of Companies :

India Stamp 2016, House of DempoIssued by India

Issued on Mar 4, 2016

Issued for : The Department of Posts is pleased to release a commemorative postage stamp on Shri Vasantrao Srinivassa Sinai Dempo.

Credits :
Stamp / FDC / Cancellation Cachet : Smt. Nenu Gupta

Type : Stamp, Mint Condition

Colour : Multi Colour

Denomination : 500 Paise

Stamps Printed : 0.4012 million

Printing Process : Wet Offset

Printer : Security Printing Press, Hyderabad

Name : Vasantrao Shrinivas Dempo

Born on Feb 4, 1916 at Santa Cruz, Goa, India

Died on Nov 9, 2000

About : 

  • Mr. Vencatexa Sinai Dempo, also known as Vasantrao, was born to Mrs. Satyabhama and Mr. Srinivassa Sinai Dempo on 4th March, 1916. The family home at Calapur (Santa Cruz) in which the young Vasantrao grew up was steeped in religiosity and orthodox ritual, from which came his staunch piety towards his family deities and reverence for the Pontiff of the Monastic School to whose sect he belonged. Having studied Marathi, Portuguese and English, he grew aware of the great world of business that lay beyond Goa. Generations of land-owning, shipping, trading in agricultural produce and underwriting had led to the Dempos being esteemed highly, for their integrity as much as for their social responsibility. It was Vasantrao’s genius that he kept alive and strengthened this glorious tradition, while pioneering new lines and new practices of business.
  • Commencing the trading in commodities sourced overseas, Vasantrao made available a wealth of choice to the Goan consumer. Casting about for business opportunity, he showed great foresight in recognizing the potential for iron ore mining in Goa. Acquiring mining concessions in the late 1930s and early 1940s, he formed V. S. Dempo & Co. Pvt. Ltd., the Group flagship in 1941, assisted by his brother, Mr. Vaikunthrao S. Dempo. The Company would go on to become a much-lauded eport house in addition to the region’s premier mining and processing concern. Acquiring the ore-rich mine at Bicholim, till today Goa’s largest, he set up Dempo Mining Corporation Pvt. Ltd., the flagship’s subsidiary, a few years later. Recognizing the vulnerability of Europe-oriented exports to the Suez Canal, Vasantrao looked far Eastwards instead, commencing exports to Japan, in particular to Nippon Steel, starting a long business relationship that abides to this day; over half a century later. Vasantrao invested in transhipper vessels on contracts with international corporate giants such as Krupp. He did so, correctly foreseeing the logistical scale of operations involved in the undertaking. Vasantrao’s iron resolve rode the Company out of the pre-Liberation naval blockade of Goa.
  • The years following Goa‘s Liberation were those of consolidation and expansion, when his son and eventual successor, Vasudeva V. Dempo, joined in assisting him in a long, devoted and fruitful apprenticeship that saw newer lines of activity at the House of Dempo. Manufacture of calcined petroleum coke, marine paints and baby foods, newspaper publishing, shipping, ship building, civil contracting, real estate development, travel services, automobile dealerships, and stevedoring, followed.
  • Vasantrao Dempo set the foundations for higher education in newly-liberated Goa. He patronized Goa’s most consistently excelling soccer club and supported charitable causes and exerted his influence in promoting Goan industry. Honoring him for his efforts in nation-building, the Government of India conferred upon him the civilian award, “Padmashri”. Some of the awards that deserve special mention are the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for Excellence for 1990 for enhancing India’s prestige and contributing towards national development, given by the London-based Non Resident Indians’ Institute, the Rotary Club of Panjim‘s “Ambassador of Goodwill” honour, and the Shiromani Institute’s award for national integration.
  • Vasantrao was highly sought after as advisor by a number of institutions of worth. He sat on several highly regarded Committees and bodies. Chairman of the Indo-Portuguese Trade Council, he was also a member of the Lloyd’s Register of Shipping for India, the American Bureau of Shipping’s Technical Committee and the Indo-Japan Business Corporation Committee. He also served as the President of the Goan Chamber of Commerce and Industry.
  • Vasantrao was a man of great charm and enormous dignity. He radiated authority and exuded an unmistakable aura of power. When the end came on 9th November, 2000 Vasantrao had ensured not only a place for himself in India’s industrial history, but also in the hearts and minds of Goans.
  • Text : Based on the material received from proponent.

Murasoli Maran

A commemorative postage stamp on Thiru Murasoli Maran :

India Stamp 2004, Dravida Munnetra KazhagamIssued by India

Issued on Aug 17, 2004

Type : Stamp, Mint Condition

Colour : Multicolor

Denomination : 500 Paise

Print Quantity : 0.6 Million

Printing Process : Photogravure

Printer : Madras Security Printers Ltd.

Name : Murasoli Maran

Born on Aug 17, 1935 at Thirukkuvalai, Madras Presidency, British India [now in Tanjavur district, Tamil Nadu, India]

Died on Nov 24, 2003 at Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Siddhar Swamigal

A commemorative postage stamp on the Birth Centenary of Om Sri Sath Guru Siddhar Swamigal :

India Stamp 2004Issued by India

Issued on May 15, 2004

Type : Stamp, Mint Condition

Colour : Multicolor

Denomination : 500 Paise

Print Quantity : 0.4 Million

Printing Process : Photo Offset

Printer : Madras Security Printers

Name : Narayanaswamy (Sattampillai)

Born on May 18, 1904 at Kumbakonam, Thanjavur district, Tamil Nadu, India

Died on Aug 31, 1964 at Mayiladuthurai, Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu, India

Indra Chandra Shastri

A commemorative postage stamp on Dr. Indra Chandra Shastri :

India Stamp 2004, progressive JainIssued by India

Issued on May 27, 2004

Type : Stamp, Mint Condition

Colour : Multicolor

Denomination : 500 Paise

Stamps Printed : 0.4 Million

Printing Process : Photogravure

Printer : India Security Press, Nashik

Name : Indra Chandra Shastri

Born on Jun 30, 1912 at Dabwali Mandi, Hissar district, Haryana, India

Died on Nov 3, 1986

Aacharya Bhikshu

A commemorative postage stamp on Acharya Shri Bhikshu :

India Stamp 2004 Jain monk, Jainism, SvetambaraIssued by India

Issued on Jun 30, 2004

Type : Stamp, Mint Condition

Colour : Multicolor

Denomination : 500 Paise

Stamps Printed : 0.4 Million

Printing Process : Photogravure

Printer : India Security Press, Nashik

Name : Bhikhanji

Born on Jul 1, 1726 at Kantaliya, Rajasthan, India

Died on Aug, 1803 at Siriyari, Pali district, Rajasthan, India

Bhaskara Sethupathy

A commemorative postage stamp on Bhaskara Sethupathi, Raja of Ramnad :

India Stamp 2004, Raja of RamnadIssued by India

Issued on Dec 27, 2004

Type : Stamp, Mint Condition

Colour : Multicolor

Denomination : 500 Paise

Print Quantity : 0.6 Million

Printing Process : Photogravure

Printer : India Security Press, Nashik

Name : Hiranyagarbhayaji Ravikula Muthuvijaya Raghunatha Bhaskara

Born on Nov 3, 1868

Died on Dec 27, 1903

Maraimalai Adigal

A commemorative postage stamp on Maraimalai Adigal :

India Stamp 2007, Shaivism, Self-respect movementIssued by India

Issued on Aug 17, 2007

Type : Stamp, Mint Condition

Colour : Multicolor

Denomination : 500 Paise

Stamps Printed : 0.4 Million

Printing Process : WetOffset

Printer : Security Printing Press, Hyderabad

Name : N. C. Vedhachalam Pillai

Born on Jul 15, 1876 at Nagapattinam, Madras Presidency, British India

Died on Sep 15, 1950 at Madras, Madras State, India

Saint Vallalar (Ramalinga Adigalar)

A commemorative postage stamp on Chidambaram Ramalingam :

India Stamp 2007 Chidambaram Ramalingam SwamigalIssued by India

Issued on Aug 17, 2007

Type : Stamp, Mint Condition

Colour : Multicolor

Denomination : 500 Paise

Stamps Printed : 0.4 Million

Printing Process : WetOffset

Printer : Security Printing Press, Hyderabad

Name : Arutprakasa Vallalar Chidambaram Ramalingam

Born on Oct 5, 1823 at Chidambaram, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India

Died on Jan 30, 1874 at Mettukuppam, Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India

Darul-Uloom

A commemorative postage stamp on the Death Centenary of Maulana Md. Qasim, founder of  Darul Uloom Deoband :

India Stamp 1980 Muslim picIssued by India

Issued on Mar 21, 1980

Issued for : Maulana Muhammad Qasim died at the early age of 48 in 1880, almost a hundred years ago. The Indian P&T Department is privileged to issue a special stamp to commemorate Darul-Uloom, the institution that is his everlasting memorial.

Description of Designs : The stamp depicts a view of the main building of Darul-Uloom, Deoband which houses DarulTafseer and DarulHadis.

The first day cover, designed by the India Security Press, shows a view of the building of Darul-Ifta, one of the departments of Darul-Uloom, Deoband.

Designed by : India Security Press, based on a Photograph by Shri Charanjit Lal.

Type : Stamp, Mint condition

Colour : Olive Green

Denomination : 30 Paise

Overall size : 3.91 x 2.90 cms.

Printing size : 3.55 x 2.54 cms.

Perforation : 13 x 13

Watermark : Printed on watermarked adhesive stamp paper

Number printed : 30,00,000

Number per issue sheet : 35

Printing Process : Photogravure

Printed at : India Security Press

About : 

  • The 1857 War of Independence was fought with unique revolutionary fervour and sense of national identity. One of its many remarkable features was the participation of a large number of Muslim divines and thinkers who not only issued edicts in favour of the war against the British, but also often fought as combat soldiers in the nationalist army. Among those who took part in the battle of Shamli in Muzaffarnagar District of Uttar Pradesh was the great sufi and saint, Shah Imdadullah Muhajir Makki; one of his companions in arms was a 25 years old scholar Muhammad Qasim, of Nanauta in Saharanpur District of Uttar Pradesh later to become famous all over the Islamic world as the founder and the guiding spirit of the DarulUloom at Deoband (Distt. Saharanpur).
  • Founded in 1866, with the inspiration of Shah Imdadullah Muhajir Makki, Maulana Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and other great muslims of the time, the Darul-Uloom began to attract students and scholars from far and wide even during the brief life span of Maulana Muhammad Qasim. The institution kept up its tradition of unflinching devotion to the laws and learning of Islam in their pristine purity, strong nationalist bias and total independence of Government aid. It became, in the words of the late President Rajendra Prasad, a stronghold of freedom. During its 114 years of existence, it has not accepted any grant or aid from any Government body and yet has been able to educate to the highest level more than 15,000 scholars in Islamic laws, theology, philosophy and medicine. Students have come to it from as far as the USSR, China, Africa, and even Saudi Arabia, Iraq and Yemen. At present its enrolment exceeds 1,800; the number of resident teachers and men of learning is almost 400; its budget for the year 1978 was about Rs. 29 lakhs. [all data given above are at the time of issuance of this stamp.]

Sheik Thambi Pavalar

A commemorative postage stamp on Sathavathani Sheikh Thambi Pavalar :

India Stamp 2008Issued by India

Issued on Dec 31, 2008

Issued for : The Department of Posts is proud to release a commemorative postage stamp on Sheik Thambi Pavalar.

Credits :
Stamp
 : India Security Press, Nasik
FDC & Cancellation : Alka Sharma

Type : Stamp, Mint Condition

Colour : Multi Colour

Denomination : 500 Paise

Stamps Printed : 0.4 Million

Printing Process : Photogravure

Printer : India Security Press, Nasik

Name : Sheikh Thambi Pavalar

Born on Jul 31, 1874 at Edalakudy, Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu, India

Died on Feb 13, 1950

About : 

  • In one of the public meetings presided by Itta Parthasarathy Naidu he was conferred the title of Pavalar at the age of twenty-seven.
  • Sheik Thambi Pavalar gained widespread popularity after his manifestation of ‘Arupta’ of Ramalinga Adigalar as ‘Arupta’. He performed ‘Sodasavadanam’ on one Friday in 1906 in front of the Arippu Street Juma Masjid. At the end of the function Sadavadanam Subramonia Iyer conferred the title of Mahamadi (intellectual giant) and the president of the function conferred the title of Sadavadani on him.
  • Several other titles, like Devamirtha Prasanka Kalanchiya, Tamil Perunkadal, Kalai Kadal, Allama etc., were conferred on him.
  • In 1907, he married Mohamed Fathima Beevi at Kottar. He was included in the Tamil Sangam, Madurai established by Pandithurai Thevar. While he was living at Kottar, people benefited from his scholarly attributes. He was also associated with Indian National Congress in the year 1920. He was a strong supporter of Khadi.
  • He died on February 13, 1950.
  • Text : Based on material provided by the proponent.

Gaurishanker Dalmia

A commemorative postage stamp on Gaurishankar Dalmia :

India Stamp 2009 Bihar CongressIssued by India

Issued on Nov 12, 2009

Issued for : The Department of Posts is happy to issue a commemorative postage stamp on Gaurishanker Dalmia.

Credits :
Stamp
, FDC & Cancellation : Nenu Gupta

Type : Stamp, Mint Condition

Colour : Multi Colour

Denomination : 500 Paise

Stamps Printed : 0.4 Million

Printing Process : Wetoffset

Printer : India Security Press, Nasik

Name : Gaurishanker Dalmia

Born on Nov 12, 1910 at Lakhisaray, Munger district, Bihar, India

Died on Jun 16, 1988

About : 

  • Gaurishanker Dalmia was born on 12.11.1910 at Lakhisaray village in Munger District, Bihar. He was educated in Kolkata. When he was 17 years old his father died and he assumed charge of the family business.
  • Responding to the call of Mahatma Gandhi, he abandoned his family business and started living in Jasidih, a village in Santhal Pargana. He took active part in the freedom struggle. In 1926, once again inspired by Mahatma Gandhi, he entered public life and took a vow to wear Khadi. He was imprisoned in 1931 for participating in the Namak Satyagrah (Salt Movement). In 1936 he was elected President of the Santhal Pargana District Congress Committee and was founder General Secretary of Santhal Paharia Seva Mandal, Deoghar, established in 1936. After independence the Seva Mandal was awarded by the Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and also received a National Award.
  • Gaurishanker Dalmia was elected as Member of the Bihar Legislative Assembly (MLA) from 1937 till 1952 and Member of Bihar Legislative Council (MLC) from 1952 till 1972.
  • He was associated with many business and educational institutions. He was Member of the Senate of Bhagalpur University. He was Executive Committee member of FICCI, New Delhi and Indian Employers’ Association, New Delhi. He was also Chairman of the Bihar Industries Association, Patna for 13 years and he was President of the Bihar Chamber of Commerce, Patna for two terms (4 years). He was founder President of the South Bihar Chamber of Commerce and for about 20 years, he remained its President.
  • He was especially interested in the fields of education and health involving himself in work relating to education, leprosy eradication, rehabilitation of handicapped persons, upliftment of Adiwasis (aboriginal tribes), Prakirtik Chikitsa (nature cures) etc. He served leprosy patients through 40 service centres and points of medicine-dispensation and 3 hospitals.
  • He made important contribution to anti-leprosy work and for serving handicapped children and for their rehabilitation. He devoted his life for upliftment of Dalits, tribals and Paharia’s (a primitive tribe) in 6 districts of Santhal Pargana Division establishing 30 primary schools on the hills, 2 treatment centres in the foothills and plains and 10 treatment centres (hospitals) for treating aboriginals (Adiwasi) at other places, 200 primary schools and night-schools, 3 high schools, 4 middle schools, 4 hostels and 4 hospitals, 24 Balbaries (creches) and Sishupalan Kendras were also established.
  • He had an abiding interest in journalism. He published Prakash in Hindi and The Spark in English as weekly magazines for about two decades. Since 1950, he published many books in Santhali language in Nagri script. He made efforts for Nagri script to be accepted for Santhali language, which was given recognition by the Government.
  • He passed away on 16.06.1988.
  • Text : Based on the text provided by the proponent.

2nd Africa-India Forum Summit 2011

A Miniature Sheet consisting of 2 nos. of commemorative postage stamp on the 2nd AfricaIndia Forum Summit 2011Addis-Ababa, Ethiopia :

India Stamp Miniature Sheet 2011, elephantIssued by India

Issued on May 25, 2011

Issued for : India Post is happy to issue set of commemorative postage stamps on the 2nd Africa-India Forum summit. The stamp is being released by the Prime Minister of India on 25th May 2011 in the presence of several African Heads of State/Government.

Credits :
Stamp & FDC : Kamleshwar Singh
Cancellation : Alka Sharma

Type : Miniature Sheet, Mint Condition

Colour : Multi Colour

Denomination : 500 & 2500 Paise

Stamps Printed : 0.4 Million each (0.3 million for normal distribution and 0.1 million for e-post office to be sent to Sansad Marg HPO New Delhi 110 001)

Miniature Sheets : 0.3 Million (0.2 million for normal distribution and 0.1 million for e-post office to be sent to Sansad Marg HPO New Delhi 110 001)

Printing Process : Wet Offset

Printer : Security Printing Press, Hyderabad

About : 

  • India‘s historical relationship with Africa has been revitalized keeping in view functional co-operation in the 21st century. Our political support for Africa has been augmented by closer economic co-operation including economic assistance, functional co-operation, soft loans, and private sector investment.
  • In April 2008, India hosted the First AfricaIndia Forum Summit in Delhi. This summit built upon the foundations of the historical relationship that existed between India and Africa, and designed a new architecture for a structured engagement, interaction and co-operation between India and our African partners, in the 21st century. The summit celebrated our friendship and renewed our commitment to Africa. The historic documents, the Delhi Declaration and the IndiaAfrica Framework for cooperation adopted at the end of the Summit now serve as the contours for our systematic engagement with Africa in the coming years.
  • In order to continue and enhance the systematic engagement with Africa in the coming years, the 2nd AfricaIndia Forum Summit is being organized in AddisAbaba during 24-25 May 2011. This is for the first time that a meeting between India and its African partners at the level of Heads of State/Government is being organised in Africa.
  • On the sidelines of the Summit several concurrent events are also organized including academic symposia, editors’ conference; trade fair; cultural events showcasing Indian and African culture; a film festival; and release of set of commemorative stamps.
  • Text : Based on the material provided by the proponent.

V. Subbiah

A commemorative postage stamp on the Birth Centenary of Dr. Varadarajulu Subbiah :

India Stamp 2011, PondicherryIssued by India

Issued on Feb 7, 2011

Issued for : India Post is happy to issue a commemorative postage stamp on V. Subbiah.

Credits :
Stamp/FDC/Cancellation
 : Nenu Gupta

Type : Stamp, Mint Condition

Colour : Multicolour

Denomination : 500 Paise

Stamps Printed : 0.3 Million

Printing Process : Wet Offset

Printer : SSP, Hyderabad

Name : Varadarajulu Subbiah

Born on Feb 7, 1911 at Pondicherry, French India

Died on Oct 12, 1993 at Pondicherry, India

About : 

  • V. Subbiah was born on 7th February 1911 to Shri Varatharajalu and Smt. Bangaru Ammal. He began his education career in Calve College High School in Puducherry, and his political career dates from his student days by participating in the Congress Conference held at Chennai in 1927-28. His urge for nationalism made him think of Puducherry’s independence from the French.
  • In 1933, he started Harijan Welfare Association and arranged for the first visit of Mahatma Gandhi to Puducherry. In 1934, he started a magazine in Tamil called Swadanthiram (Independence). It was in this period that he came in touch with Ameer Hyder Khan and S. V. Ghate and joined the Communist movement. He launched an agitation demanding the workers right to work for 8 hours per day, wage rise and trade union rights. Because of his tireless efforts, the system of 8 hours work was introduced.
  • In 1938, on the advice of Jawaharlal Nehru he started Mahajana Sabha, a United Political Front. He fought against fascist principles by starting a movement called ‘Combat’. He intensified the struggle from 1936-1954 for the freedom of Puducherry, from the French.
  • Several times he was jailed by the then British and French Governments. Puducherry achieved independence in 1954 from the French. He was elected to the first Puducherry Legislative Assembly and remained its Member till 1978 and was also Minister. He visited several foreign countries and attended various conferences. His interest in writing led him to author several books. In 1986, Government of India listed him among 97 original thinking Freedom Fighters all over India.
  • Text : Based on materials provided by the proponent.

Beautiful India 2017

Complete Set of 2 nos. of special postage stamp on Beautiful India :

India Stamp 2017 picIndia Stamp 2017 imageIssued by India

Issued on Aug 15, 2017

Issued for : Department of Posts is pleased to release a miniature sheet and a set of two Commemorative Postage Stamps on Beautiful India on the selected entries.

Credits :
Stamps
/Miniature Sheet/FDC/Brochure/Cancellation Cachet : Ms. Nenu Gupta, based on selected entries received from participant.

Type : StampsMint Condition

Colour : Multi Colour

Denomination : 1500 Paise (2)

Stamps Printed : 0.5 million each

Miniature Sheet Printed : 0.1 million

Printing Process : Wet Offset

Printer : Security Printing Press, Hyderabad

About : 

  • Department of Posts is conducting stamp design competition on various themes from 2015 on the occasion of Republic Day, Independence Day and Children’s Day at national level. Based on the entries received from the participants, stamps are designed and released. Selected participants are given cash awards for first three places. As a novel exercise this time, a nationwide photography competition on theme Beautiful India was conducted on the occasion of Independence Day, 2017. Based on the best entries, stamps, First Day Cover and Brochure have been designed. The first three places won in Photography Competition are by Sh. K. Narayanaswamy, Mr. Pulkit Tyagi and Sh. Mihir Singh. Entries received from Sh. K. Narayanaswamy, Mr. Pulkit Tyagi and Sh. Mihir Singh, Ms. Surya R. G. and Smt. Chamah Sharma have been used for designing the Stamp, FDC and Brochure.
  • India is a unique country with rich diversity in geography, diversity in languages, diversity in food, diversity in clothes, diversity in festivals and so on which uniquely represents the mosaic of our country and its people. India’s astounding diversity of religions, languages and cultures is unique and unparalleled. The culture of the vast subcontinent, varied and complex in its rich heritage is among the oldest in the world. Five thousand years of history have nourished the growth of our great civilization. It has been vitalized through cross cultural contacts and characterized by unity in diversity.
  • The selected photographs depict the various natural and beautiful aspects of India. The tree laden with yellow flowers at both sides of road and girls going to school is a nice visual. The hills of Lahaul, Himachal Pradesh and photograph of Tajmahal snapped from the garden brings a refreshing angle to a popular subject. The photo of Saryulsar Lake, Kullu and the scenery of a pond circled with hyacinth and filled with innumerable number of small water birds are indeed visual treats.
  • Text : Based on the information available on internet.

Banaras Hindu University 2017

Complete set of 2 nos of commemorative postage stamp on the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) :

India Setenant Stamp 2017, BHU, Varanasi, Madan Mohan Malavya picIssued by India

Issued on Jun 28, 2017

Issued for : Department of Posts is pleased to release a set of two Commemorative Postage Stamps on Banaras Hindu University.

Credits :
Stamp/FDC/Brochure/Cancellation Cachet : Shri Brahm Prakash

Type : Setenant set of Stamps, Mint Condition

Colour : Multi Colour

Denomination : 500 & 1500 Paise

Stamps Printed : 3.60 Lakh

Printing Process : Wet Offset

Printer : Security Printing Press, Hyderabad

About : 

  • The Banaras Hindu University, founded by Mahamana Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya Ji in 1916 is the first truly residential Indian University established on the pattern of the universities at Nalanda and Taxila. The Banaras Hindu University (BHU), is not only one of the most prestigious Central Universities in the country, but is also the largest residential University in Asia. The scheme for the establishment of Banaras Hindu University was formulated in consultation with eminent freedom fighters and nationalists like Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Surendra Nath Banerjee and had the support of prominent educationists and other representatives from all over the country.
  • The confluence of oriental and theological learning with liberal arts, science and engineering, Ayurveda and modern systems of medicine and agriculture made BHU a unique Capital of Knowledge where East met West. The excellent infrastructural facilities, many of which were ahead of times for India, model campus life and the magnetic personality of Pt. Malaviyaji made BHU the most favored destination for the talented students and learned faculty from all parts of the country. Although designated as ‘The Benares Hindu University’, the National University has all along been a truly national institution open to persons of all classes, castes, creeds, and of both sexes without any discrimination whatsoever.
  • The holistic model of education, conceived and enriched by its illustrious founder, Mahamana Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya Ji, offers refreshing new perspectives to young minds and facilitates the accomplishment of their creative talents. Its contribution in extending the frontiers of knowledge in critical areas and also in the regeneration of the community values is well manifested throughout the world with its alumni occupying key positions in varied professional domains.
  • The university has produced a galaxy of alumni in all walks of life who have been leaders in the national movement, in nation building after independence and in establishing its infrastructure through major industries such as steel, coal, minerals, energy, railways and water reservoirs/dams etc. This also includes developing institutions like the IITs, the IIMs, health education universities and agriculture universities/institutions.
  • Its alumni have been Vice-President of India, Prime Ministers, Chief Justice of Supreme Court, Members of Parliament, holders of Bharat Ratna, Fellows of Royal Asiatic Society and numerous other bodies and organizations all over the country.
  • The University is located on the western bank of holy river Ganga. It is spread over an area of 15 square kilometers with majestic buildings of great architectural delight. The University has 134 independent teaching departments, many of them recognized as Centres of Excellence, 2 interdisciplinary schools, 16 Faculties, one constituent college, 5 Institutes and 12 Centres of Studies with the unique distinction of having all in the same walled campus. The campus has a unique special attraction in Bharat Kala Bhawan, a treasure house of artifacts.
  • The University also runs three schools and one Ranveer Sanskrit Pathshala imparting education from primary to secondary level apart from having a Kendriya Vidyalaya housed in the Campus. In addition, the Rajiv Gandhi South Campus has been established in the year 2006 in a sprawling campus of 1092.6 Hectares (2700 Acres) located about 75 kms away from the main campus, at Barkachha in Mirzapur district, Uttar Pradesh.
  • The Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) is located in the campus of the Banaras Hindu University. Earlier it was also a part of the BHU corpus.
  • The University has its own telecommunication setup, Press, Computer network system, Dairy, Agricultural farms, museum of arts and culture of international repute – ‘Bharat Kala Bhawan’, Swimming Pool, Guest House Complex, Hostels for boys and girls, residential quarters for faculty and staff, auditoriums including the main ‘Swatantrata Bhawan’ with nearly 2000 seats and modern facilities, Central Library having more than one million volumes, Health Centres, 1000 bedded modern Hospital, the biggest Trauma Centre & Superspeciality Hospital of the country, Indoor and Outdoor stadium, Gymnasium, the famous Lord Vishwanath Temple, Air/Naval/Infantry NCC wings, NSS & Mountaineering Centre, Public Relations and Publication Units, Employment Guidance and Information Bureau, Training and Placement Centres, Hobby Centre, Cafeteria, Banks and Post-Offices, a Telegraphy Office, Shopping Centre, Airfield and Helipad, Electric, Water & Works Departments and its own security arrangement for law and order. It is one of a handful of Indian universities with undergraduate and postgraduate education as well as research, all in one campus.
  • The Banaras Hindu University has attained its Hundred Years on Vasantapanchami 12th February, 2016. It has been a great journey for this prime institution of learning well known as ‘Capital of Knowledge’.
  • Text : Based on the material received from the Proponent.

India on 1942 Freedom Movement

A Miniature Sheet consisting of 8 nos. of commemorative postage stamp on the 75th anniversary of the Quit India movement :

India Stamp Miniature Sheet 2017, Quit India, Mahatma Gandhi imageIssued by India

Issued on Aug 9, 2017

Issued for : The Department of Posts is pleased to issue a set of eight Commemorative Postage Stamps on the completion of 75 years of 1942 Freedom Movement.

Credits :
Stamp/Miniature Sheet/FDC/Brochure : Sh. Sankha Samanta
Cancellation Cachet : Smt. Alka Sharma

Type : Miniature Sheet, Mint Condition

Colour : Multi Colour

Denomination : 500 Paise (8)

Stamps Printed : 0.5 million each

Miniature Sheet Printed : 0.1 million

Printing Process : Wet Offset

Printer : India Security Press, Nashik

About : 

  • On 26th April, 1942 Gandhiji wrote an essay on Quit India in the Harijan Patrika. Thereafter, the notion of Quit India Movement was started on 14th July, 1942, when the Congress Working Committee approved a resolution which declared that the immediate ending of British rule in India is an urgent necessity both for the sake of India and for the success of the cause of the United Nations. On 8th August, 1942, Mahatma Gandhi launched the Quit India Resolution for freedom from British rule during the All India Congress Committee (AICC) meeting at Gowlia Tank Maidan, Mumbai (now known as August Kranti Maidan).
  • The movement was accompanied by a mass protest on non-violent lines, in which Gandhi called for “an orderly British withdrawal from India”. In a stirring speech Gandhiji told the people, There is a mantra, a short one, that I give you. You imprint it on your heart and let every breath of yours give an expression to it. The mantra is do or die. We shall either be free or die in the attempt….Every one of you from this moment consider himself a free man or women and even act as if you are free and no longer under the heel of this imperialism. These words created an “electric atmosphere” in the country.
  • The failure of the Cripps Mission was another event which triggered off the Quit India Movement.
  • Following were the salient features of the Quit India Resolution launched by Gandhiji:

    1. Hartals (strikes) in all cities and villages throughout the country.

    2. All countrymen were promoted to self-made their salt as it is a prime necessity of our life.

    3. Students above 16 may leave their college and universities and conduct a non-violence struggle for India’s freedom.

    4. Every man or women in the country carry on badge bearing the motto do or die.

  • In the early hours of 9th August, 1942 all the top leaders, including Gandhiji, Jawaharlal Nehru and Maulana Azad, were arrested, and the Congress was declared an unlawful organization. Despite his failing health and the recent demise of his wife, Gandhiji who was in prison, took on a 21 day fast. The British released Gandhi due to his ill health, but Gandhi continued his opposition and asked for the release of the Congress leaders who were in prison. Gandhiji’s last minute exhortation “Do or Die” sank deep in the minds of the people and they were ready to make the supreme sacrifice to defy the government.
  • A wave of anger swept the country. The protest began in the form of the innumerable strikes, meetings and processions in the major cities like Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi, Patna and Ahmedabad. And then, the ruthless repressive measures taken by the police and the army, who made the railways, post offices and other government properties their major targets. By the end of 1942, more than 60,000 people were arrested and, about 10,000 were killed. It, however, spread to the rural areas, and went underground in the urban areas.
  • The British were prepared for this massive uprising. The British acted quickly and arrested thousands of people. Most of the leaders arrested had to spend the next three years in jail, until World War II ended. Apart from filling up jails with rebellious leaders, the British also went ahead and abolished civil rights, freedom of speech and freedom of press.
  • The main centers of the Quit India movement were Satara of Maharashtra, Tamluk, Contai of Midnapore, Balurghat of West Dinajpur, Balia, Azamgarh of U.P., Naogaon of Assam. Among the notable leaders were Srinath Lal, Nana Patil of Satara, Chaitu Pandey of Balia, Matangini Hazra, Sushil Dhara of Tamluk, Punjab’s Fukonani, Assam’s Kanaklata Barua. At Midnapore, Bengal, Quit India Movement took form of a mass uprising. The peasant movement organised by Birendranath Shasmal (‘Desh Pran’) enable the rapid spread of the Quit India Movement. It had deep impacts at Dinajpur, Balurghat, Midnapore, Contai, Tamluk, Patashpur, Bhagwanpur, Sutahata, Nandigram, Mahishadal, Birbhum, 24 Parganas etc. On 29th September 1942, under the leadership of 72 years old Matangini Hazra and Ramchandra Bera a mass of 20,000 seized the court and police station. When police opened fire on this procession many along with Matangini Hazra died. After Matangini the leadership was taken by Ajay Mukherjee, Sushil Dhara, and Satish Samanta and they captured Lalbari. On 17th December 1942 A.D. Ajoy Mukherjee formed the “Tamluk Provisional National Government”. They formed an armed force called ‘Bidyut Bahaini’ and women organization ‘Bhagini Sena’.
  • The significance of Quit India Movement is that the British realized that they would not be able to govern India successfully in the long run and began to think of ways they could exit the country in a peaceful and dignified manner. The Quit India Movement proved the power of the masses.
  • Text : Based on the material available.

Caves of Meghalaya

A Miniature Sheet consisting of 4 nos. of special postage stamp on the Caves of Meghalaya :

India Stamp Miniature Sheet 2017, Krem, Khasi, nature picIssued by India

Issued on Aug 15, 2017

Issued for : Department of Posts is pleased to issue a set of four Commemorative Postage Stamps on Caves of Meghalaya.

Credits :
Stamps/Miniature Sheet/FDC/Brochure : Sh. Suresh Kumar
Cancellation Cachet : Ms. Nenu Gupta

Type : Miniature Sheet, Mint Condition

Colour : Multi Colour

Denomination : 500 Paise (4)

Stamps Printed : 0.5 million each

Miniature Sheet Printed : 0.1 million

Printing Process : Wet Offset

Printer : Security Printing Press, Hyderabad

About : 

  • Starting as a coral island, after the breakup of the super-continent Gondwanaland, Meghalaya is mostly comprised of a relatively stable high structural block, called the Shillong Plateau, with underlying Precambrian granites, gneisses and schists. Along its southern border however, a younger sedimentary sequence was formed which includes limestone. The land experienced a succession of dramatic events where parts of the land were uplifted only to sink before rising above the sea again, thereby lifting the karst areas to considerable height.
  • The presence of ideal conditions like high grade limestone, heavy precipitation, elevation and hot and humid climate induced the formation of caves at diverse locations and elevations, making this particular region of the country a delightful paradise of caves. During the last twenty five years of exploration, 1620 caves have been identified or located out of which about 1030 have been explored and mapped, yielding a total cave passage mapped at 460 kilometers with the potential of much more to be discovered. These extensive and intricate subterranean systems of Meghalaya are the longest and deepest in India, with the longest being Krem Liat PrahUm ImLabit system at 30,397 metres and the deepest being Synrang Pamiang at -317 metres.
  • These caves are also unique as habitat for rare and endemic troglobitic animals not found elsewhere in the world like Hetoropoda fischeri and Schistura papulifera. Department of Posts is issuing stamps on four caves of Meghalaya i.e. Krem Blang, Krem Khung, Krem Syndai and Krem Lymput.
  • Krem Blang: (25°25’26.8” N: 092°35’00.2” E), is located in East Jaintia Hills district. It is 272.93 m long. It is a single large relic passage below a short slope. The passage of the cave remains at fairly constant width and height dimensions of seven metres by nine metres for almost the whole length. About 50 metres into the cave a short but easy squeeze through calcite formations have to be negotiated, after which the passage turns and opens up again to a straight 200 metre long gallery. A short distance after this, a boulder slope on the south east side leads up towards the roof. Here a short, free climbable three by one metre wide pitch extends five metres up to a very unstable chamber and an exit to daylight.

    After another thirty metres back in the main passage Angie’s Chamber is reached. Here the floor is covered with beautiful crystal pools and cave pearls requiring very careful negotiation. Clusters of high stalagmites and columns form bizarre groups of picturesque calcite formations along the walls. Another twenty metres further on a dry inlet with calcite floor joins the main passage and arrives on top of a great flowstone and calcite formation called The Fireplace. A little ahead a short scramble and crawl to the west leads into an impressively decorated chamber named Annie’s Ballroom at the end of which calcite formations block all possible ways on.

  • Krem Khung: (25°23’21.9” N: 92°34’48.8” E), is located in East Jaintia Hills district of Meghalaya. The cave lies at the valley level at an altitude of 879 m above the mean sea level. The 1.4m by 1.6m triangular shaped entrance of the cave is through a sinkhole lying below a cliff. Beyond the entrance, the cave floor is covered with dry mud and flood debris for about fifty to sixty metres after which numerous pools with slushy to knee deep water are to be negotiated for onward progress into the main cave system.

    The cave trends in a north east direction towards the Kopili River and is a major sink of the area taking a lot of water during the monsoon.

    One of the characteristic features of Krem Khung is its meandering nature which practically obliterates the transitional zone and the dark zone starts within less than 100m of the entrance.

    Main trend of the cave leads into a large chamber with a diameter of about 50 m and height of about 8 m. This chamber, which has been named as Paradise Chamber by cave explorers is spectacular from the point of view of speleological features. Its base is strewn with fallen boulders and it has development of multi-coloured stalactites, stalagmites and columns; some of the stalactites are of bright yellow colour due to sulphuric bacterial activity.

    The cave is hosted by limestone of Eocene age as indicated by the presence of age diagnostic fossils of foraminiferal species of Nummulites.

    At 7,349 metres long it is currently India’s tenth longest cave.

  • Krem Syndai: (25°10’53.8” N: 92°08’15.7” E; Length 400 metres). The cave entrance lies in a small depression some four hundred metres from the village of Sundai, in West Jaintia Hills district.

    The cave is entered by a stooping height arch and once inside the passage immediately opens up into impressive proportions. The way forward lies down a steep calcite slope to the floor of the passage proper. Here the cave passage is some 25 metres or more high by some 30 metres wide, containing some impressive calcite formations in the form of large stalactite and stalagmite bosses, columns and much flowstone. The passage continues in an easterly direction for over 200 metres in similar proportions with the floor rising and falling as large calcited boulder piles and groups of large stalactite formations are met. The passage eventually begins to diminish in size and ends in a calcite blockage.

  • Krem Lymput: (25°10’35” N: 091°47’10” E) The cave lies about six kilometres from the village of Nongjri, East Khasi Hills district. The inconspicuous entrance hidden in the jungle covered boulders reveals itself by the cool air it blows. A scramble descent of about 10 metres over masses of rock to a comparatively level space leads to the main trunk passage which runs for one kilometre with inclined walls and ceiling towards west into a passage known as Way to Heaven, which is a very loose and slippery climb. It leads into a series of spacious galleries which are very rich in calcite formations. The main attraction of the cave is the Mughal Room which measures more than 25 metres wide, 25 metres high and 75 metres long. With numerous side passages creating a maze it is 6641 metres long and currently ranks at number 12 in India.
  • Text : Based on the information received from State Govt. Meghalaya.

Champaran Satyagraha

A Miniature Sheet consisting of 3 nos. of commemorative postage stamp on the Centenary of Champaran Satyagraha :

India Stamp Miniature Sheet 2017, Mahatma Gandhi, Indigo plantation, freedom movementIssued by India

Issued on May 13, 2017

Issued for : Department of Posts is pleased to issue a set of Commemorative Postage Stamps on the occasion of Centenary of Champaran Satyagraha.

Credits :
Stamps/Miniature Sheet/FDC/Brochure : Shri Sankha Samantha
Cancellation Cachet : Smt. Alka Sharma

Type : Miniature Sheet, Mint Condition

Colour : Multi Colour

Denomination : 5001000 & 2500 Paise

Stamps Printed : 5.0 Lakh each

Miniature Sheet Printed : 1.0 Lakh

Printing Process : Wet Offset

Printer : Security Printing Press, Hyderabad

About : 

  • On the afternoon of April 15, 1917, thousands had gathered at Motihari railway station in Bihar’s East Champaran, waiting for a man who was destined to lift their lives out of misery. It was 3 pm when Gandhiji alighted at the station from a train coming from Muzaffarpur. One of the places Gandhiji went to was the Bhitiharwa Ashram in Champaran, North Bihar, where in 1917; he came to conduct the famous “Indigo Labour Enquiry” and then launched a Satyagraha against forced cultivation of indigo by poor farmers.
  • It was at Champaran that the transformation from Mohandas into the Mahatma began. This is the story of Gandhi’s first satyagraha. The movement that began a new chapter in India’s Independence struggle.
  • After his return from South Africa in 1915, Gandhiji established the Sabarmati Ashram in Gujarat. Then, on his mentor Gopal Krishna Gokhale’s advice, he embarked on a journey to discover India. He travelled all over the country, from Calcutta (Now Kolkata) and Shantiniketan in Bengal to Kanpur, Rangoon (Now Yangon) and Rishikesh. During the 31st session of the Congress in Lucknow in 1916, Gandhiji met Raj Kumar Shukla, a representative of farmers from Champaran, who requested him to go and see for himself the miseries of the indigo ryots (tenant farmers) there.
  • The farmers were poorly compensated for their indigo crops and if they refused to plant indigo, they had to face heavy taxation. The landlords (mostly British) would enforce this system through their agents, called gumasta, who executed the terms brutally.
  • As a result, the reduced production of much-needed food crops and exclusive indigo farming (they were not allowed to grow any other crop even during the indigo off-season) had led to untold sufferings for the ryot farmers, including a famine-like situation. So, when the news of Gandhi’s arrival reached Champaran, it spread in the region like wildfire and he was greeted by large crowds of peasants at railway stations all along the way from Muzaffarpur to Motihari.
  • A day after reaching Motihari, Gandhiji left for the village of Jasaulipatti – he had heard about a tenant there who had been beaten and whose property had been destroyed by the landlords.
  • He was on his way to the village when he was served a notice from the British district magistrate, WB Heycock, with orders to leave Champaran by the next available train. Gandhi refused to comply and the police arrested him. He was produced before a court on April 18 where the magistrate proposed a deal,
    If you leave the district now and promise not to return, the case against you will be withdrawn
    Gandhi repliedI came here to render humanitarian services to the people of this region. I shall make Champaran my home and not leave till I have helped these suffering people.
  • With the kind of support Gandhiji was already receiving from the people of Champaran, the British government, fearing unrest, released him. Two days later the case was withdrawn and Gandhiji was allowed to remain in the district. The government also instructed its officers to look into the indigo farmers’ sufferings.
  • During his stay in Champaran, Gandhiji took up residence at Hazarimal Dharmashala in Bettiah village. He then visited many villages in the region to study the grievances of the peasants. He recorded the statements and testimonies of 8,000 indigo cultivators to understand their issues and the causes underlying them.
  • Soon realizing that ignorance and illiteracy among the farmers had made it easy for the Britishers to exploit and repress them, Gandhiji decided to setup voluntary organizations to improve the economic and educational conditions of the people.
  • He laid the foundations for three schools in 1917 – the first near Motihari, the second in Bhitiharwa and the third in Madhuban. To bridge the gap between education and work, he also set up several self-sustaining ‘Buniyadi’ schools where training in spinning, carpentry, farming and weaving were imparted as a part of school education.
  • Realizing Gandhi’s strength and devotion to the cause, the government made Gandhiji a member of an enquiry committee constituted to look into the excesses committed by landlords and planters. In October, the committee submitted its report to the government and on November 29, the Champaran Agrarian bill was submitted in the Bihar Legislative Council.
  • On March 4, 1919, with the formal signature of the Governor General, this bill turned into a law. Almost a year after Gandhi’s arrival, the exploitative tinkathia system had finally been abolished.
  • There have been peasant movements before and after the Champaran movement of 1917, but what makes Gandhi’s Champaran satyagraha significant is the fact that it was the first time that bridges had been built between the peasants and the other sections, especially the middle class intelligentsia. In this sense, the symbolic significance of this satyagraha was much greater than what actually happened in Champaran.
  • Text : Based on the information available on internet.